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英语介词是什么意思

2023-08-06 01:04:41 编辑:join 浏览量:589

英语介词是什么意思

英语介词表示词与词、词与句关系的词。常用介词:on、at、in、above、by、with等;合成类介词:inside、outside、onto、out of、within 等。

常用介词:on、at、in、above、by、with等;

合成类介词:inside、outside、onto、out of、within 等;

短语类介词:according to、ahead of、along with等。

一、含义

介词是一种用来表示词与词,词与句之间的关系的词。在句中不能单独作句字成分。介词后面一般有名词代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。介词和它的宾语构成介词词组,在句中作状语,表语,补语或介词宾语。

二、分类

1.常用简单介词:

about, across, against, among, after, at, behind, besides, beyond, by, concerning, beneath, between, despite, except, during, down, for, from, past, than, under, until 等。

2.合成介词:

inside, outside, onto, out of, within 等。

3.短语介词:

according to, ahead of, along with, as for, because of, be means of, due to, in spite of, on behalf of, owing to, with regard to 等。

三、介词与……的之关系

在英语学习中,一遇到……的,大家就会立刻想到’s 所有格或者of。实际上,在很多情况下,……的必须借助于介词才能准确表达。

● 美国的冬天→ the winter in America

● 停车场的入口→ the entrance to the parking lot

● 穿过森林的小路→ the path through the forest

● 鲁迅的著作→ the works by Lu Xun

● 水中的月亮→ the moon reflected in water

● 历史的见证→ the witness to history

● 对爱的渴望→ a longing for love

● 对我们不利的证据→ the evidence against us

● 阳光下的漫步→ a walk in the sunlight

● 追求名誉的女人→ a lady after fame

● 两人之间的争论→ an argument between the two persons

四、重要介词的重要用法

(1)from:此介词表示to相反的方向。

He came from London.

He went to London.

二词常搭配使用from... to...

We studied English from morning to afternoon.

He'll start from Beijing to Shanghai.

经典用法:

● 由于→ The girl is trembling from fear.

● 免除→ Tramps are always free from care. 流浪汉们总是无忧无虑。

● 分开→ The couple parted from each other at the airport.

● 由……制成→ The red wine is made from grapes. 红葡萄酒是由葡萄制成的。

由from引导的惯用法:

from far 从远处

from now / then on 从现在/那时起

from bad to worse 每况愈下

from time to time(occasionally 时而)

习语:

She comes to visit me from time to time.

(2)out of:表示与"into"相反的语意。

He will be out of town.

I stepped out of the dark room.

out of+ 名词 (= lack, to be without 用完,用光)

He went to the shop because he was out of paper.

out of date (= old-fashioned 过时的)

The book has been out of date.

out of work (= jobless 失业的)

He needs money because be is out of work.

out of the question (= impossible 不可能的)

Finishing the hard work is out of the question.

out of question (= doubtless 毫无疑问的)

That he can do it well is out of question.

out of order(= not functioning 失灵的)

Her radio is out of order, so she can't listen to it.

(3)by:表示从旁经过或在……附近。

He passed by me without saying hello.

He lives by the sea.

经典用法:

● 通过→This is the nearest road by which they came.

● 在……时候→The young man works by day and steals money by night.

● 由……所生→He has two sons by her second wife.

● 抓住→She caught her child by his coat in the flood.

● 按……计算→The farmers sell their apples by the pound.

● 就(气质,特征)而言→He is an artist by temperament(气质).

用于被动语意,导出动作执行者:

The glass was broken by the boy.

by + 具体时间:

They usually have dinner by 8 o'clock.

by + 交通工具 (bus, train, plan...):

He travelled to Paris by air/plane.

by the end of + 时间名词:到……末为止

By the end of last year, they had learnt 100 texts.

By the end of this term, they will have learnt 100 texts.

by then:到那时

He will graduate in 1999, by then he will leave Beijing.

by way of (= via):经由,取道

They are going to the United States by way of Hong Kong.

by the way:顺便问

By the way, do you know where Mr. Li has gone?

by far:……得多(用于修饰比较级和*高级)

The book is by far the best on the subject.

by accident:不小心,与on purpose(故意地)语意相反

The wrong information was put into the computer by accident.

标签:介词,英语

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